Occupational Future Time Perspective (FTP) Meta-Analysis

Occupational Future Time Perspective The employment context is changing. Due to aging workforces around the globe, employees have to work longer, sometimes even well after their retirement age. In addition, temporary work is increasing and job security is declining. As a result, individual employees are increasingly expected to take responsibility for managing their own careers. These developments require employees to have a more long-term focus and to anticipate their occupational future.

A concept that captures these future outlooks is occupational future time perspective (OFTP), which was introduced by Zacher and Frese (2009) and defined as individuals’ perceptions of their future in the employment context. Although OFTP is an important concept in today’s work context and previous research has demonstrated its positive effects on important work outcomes, such as work performance and work engagement (e.g., Schmitt, Zacher, & De Lange, 2013; Zacher, Heusner, Schmitz, Zwierzanska, & Frese, 2010), we lack integrated knowledge regarding the antecedents and outcomes of OFTP.

With the goals of integrating current knowledge on OFTP and providing a future research agenda and well-grounded practical implications, we are currently conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of research on occupational future time perspective.

We are currently seeking unpublished data (i.e., correlations, means, sample sizes, and reliability estimates) between occupational future time perspective, it’s dimensions, and relevant person/demographic, individual differences, and work outcome variables, including:

If you have conducted a study on OFTP that you think meets these criteria, please email Cort Rudolph, Department of Psychology, Saint Louis University (rudolphc@slu.edu).


Cort Rudolph Dorien Kooij Hannes Zacher SEAL Lab Team


Schmitt, A., Zacher, H., & de Lange, A. H. (2013). Focus on opportunities as a boundary condition of the relationship between job control and work engagement: A multi-sample, multi-method study. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22(5), 505-519.

Zacher, H., Heusner, S., Schmitz, M., Zwierzanska, M. M., & Frese, M. (2010). Focus on opportunities as a mediator of the relationships between age, job complexity, and work performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76(3), 374-386.

Zacher, H., & Frese, M. (2009). Remaining time and opportunities at work: Relationships between age, work characteristics, and occupational future time perspective. Psychology and Aging, 24(2), 487-493.

Cort W. Rudolph
Associate Professor of Industrial & Organizational Psychology